Inspecting and testing open flues in gas appliances are critical procedures in gas safety. These assessments are essential not only for the efficient operation of heating systems but, more importantly, for ensuring the safety and well-being of occupants in residential and commercial buildings. Rigorous standards and meticulous inspection processes are imperative to prevent hazardous situations such as gas leaks or carbon monoxide poisoning.
A thorough visual inspection is the first and crucial step in assessing the safety of open-flued appliances. This process involves several checks:
Ensure that the appliance has adequate ventilation. This includes verifying that vents are correctly sized, free from obstructions, and properly sleeved through walls without any blockages.
Inspect the chimney or flue to ensure it serves only one room and is continuous throughout its length. This check is vital to prevent cross-contamination of flue gases between different areas.
Checking for Obstructions:
Look for any restrictions such as flue dampers, and ensure that the catchment space is correct as per standards.
Flue Pipe Inspection:
Verify that any flue pipe is installed according to the instructions, with proper jointing and support throughout its length.
Ensure the room housing the appliance is suitable for a conventionally flued appliance, particularly avoiding locations like bathrooms or bedrooms. In case of conversions to sleeping accommodations, check that the appliance is right and installation instructions allow such use.
Flue Flow Test Procedures
Understanding the behaviour of smoke during these tests is critical, offering insights into the flue’s integrity and functionality across different parts of the property.
Before conducting a flue flow test, preparation is key:
Ensure clear visibility of the flue terminal and the flue throughout its entire length. This might include accessing roof spaces and upper rooms, especially in properties with flues extending to neighbouring units.
Initial Visual Check:
Examine the chimney or flue for appropriate material and signs of damage or potential fume leakage. Visually inspect inside the chimney as far as reasonably practicable.
Testing for Chimney Draw:
Begin with a smoke match test to assess the chimney’s draw. If the smoke isn’t fully drawn into the flue, warm up the flue using the appliance or a blow lamp, typically for five minutes, before retesting.
Conducting the Smoke Pellet Test:
Once a satisfactory draw is established, use a smoke pellet to produce 5m³ of smoke in 30 seconds. Ignite the pellet inside the flue space, observing the smoke’s movement through the chimney.
Assessing Flue Integrity:
During the test, confirm there’s no significant escape of smoke from the appliance’s position, ensure no smoke seepage along the flue length, and verify smoke discharge only from the correct terminal.
Spillage Test Protocols
This spillage test is crucial for ensuring that flue gases are adequately evacuated from the appliance, with retesting and remedial action essential in case of any detected faults.
Performing a spillage test involves the following steps:
Ensure all doors and windows in the room are closed. Close all adjustable ventilators and switch off mechanical ventilation, except those supplying combustion air to the appliance.
With the appliance running at its maximum heat input, allow it to warm up for five minutes, but not exceeding 15 minutes.
Conducting the Test:
Use a smoke device at the edge of the draught diverter or gas fire canopy. Within five minutes of lighting the appliance, observe the smoke behaviour. It should be drawn into the chimney and evacuated outside, with only occasional wisps permissible.
Observing and Reacting to Spillage:
In case of spillage, continue to operate the appliance for an additional 10 minutes and re-test. If spillage persists, switch off and disconnect the appliance and address the fault.
If there are fans in the building, perform the test with interconnecting doors open and external doors and windows closed. Conduct tests for kitchen cooker hoods, everyday extract fans, and other such devices with these in operation.
Common Flue Issues and Solutions
Flue systems can encounter several common issues that affect performance:
Poorly Terminated Chimneys:
Chimneys with varying heights on one stack can cause drafting problems. Ensure all chimneys are correctly terminated and meet the required standards.
Inadequate Flue Size:
Pre-cast flues with small cross-sectional areas may not provide adequate draft. Assessing and modifying the flue size as per guidelines can resolve this issue.
Flue Termination Issues:
Flue terminations that are only open on two sides can restrict airflow. Ensuring four-sided openings can enhance flue performance.
Twin-wall Metal Flue Pipes:
These in colder areas, like roof spaces, may have condensation or poor draft issues. Insulation or rerouting can be effective solutions.
Reference to Technical Guidelines
Adherence to Technical Bulletin 105 and the BS 5440 standards is crucial for ensuring the safety and efficacy of flue systems. These documents provide comprehensive guidelines for installing and maintaining gas appliances and their ventilation systems. Gas engineers are encouraged to consistently refer to these standards and stay updated with any revisions. Regular engagement with these technical documents ensures compliance with safety regulations and enhances professional knowledge and expertise in the field.
- Gas Safe Register Inspection of Work
- Flue in Voids (TB 008) for Gas Engineers
- What’s Involved in a Managed Learning Programme (MLP) Gas Course
- RIDDOR for Gas Engineers
- Balancing Manufacturers Gas Installation Instructions with Customers Requirements